C++ vs. Java vs. Python: What’s The Difference?

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C++, Java, and Python are three of the most popular programming languages. Each has numerous use cases and features that let you build practically anything. While all the platforms are fully-fledged programming languages, they have several key differences.

Let’s dig deeper into the basics of the C++ vs. Java vs. Python debate.

C++ vs. Java vs. Python: What Are They, and What Can You Do With Them?

We’ll dissect each programming language based on its features and use cases.

C++

C++ was developed in the 1970s by Dennis Ritchie and Bjarne Stroustrup. The language is an extension to C and has many impressive features:

  • Static typing – This statically typed programming language allows developers to check for errors before compiling to provide more secure and reliable coding.
  • Portability – You can use C++ on virtually any platform.
  • High speed – C++ is fast, making it perfect for time-sensitive programming of efficient code.
  • Various libraries – The language has a wide array of libraries to add more functionality to code.
  • Challenging but rewarding – C++ has a steep learning curve compared to other platforms. But once you master the basics, you can program more quickly than in other languages.
  • Object-oriented – The object-oriented nature of C++ lets you organize your code around classes, making it more reusable and readable.

You can develop all sorts of systems and applications with C++.

Operating Systems

This programming language is a robust and fast solution that works great for creating operating systems. For instance, large amounts of macOS X are developed in C++. Likewise, many features from IDE Visual Studio, Internet Explorer, and Microsoft Office run on C++.

GUI-Based Apps

You can use C++ to build all sorts of desktop and GUI-based applications. Two of the most popular programs developed this way are Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator.

Video Games

Game developers often use C++ as the primary tool for crafting gaming systems. The programming language allows for seamless resource manipulation. Plus, it can simplify various complexities of multiplayer networking and 3D games.

Banking Apps

Banking apps require concurrency, high performance, and multithreading. Developers typically choose between C++, Java, or Python to enable the features, but C++ is usually the go-to option. One of the most widely-used banking applications created through this programming language is Infosys Finacle.

Embedded Systems

Embedded systems typically require programs with high-quality hardware, such as medical tools and smartwatches. They’re usually created in C++, as it has many low-level functions, which are paramount for these platforms.

Internet Browsers

Modern web browsers must be fast because users don’t like long loading times. That’s why most programs are crafted in C++ to ensure quick rendering. Some browsers are developed entirely in C++, such as Mozilla Firefox. Whereas Google File System and Google Chrome are partly created in C++.

Cloud/Distributed Systems

Cloud storage systems need to be developed side-by-side with hardware to work correctly. For this reason, C++ is the default programming language for implementing most cloud-based systems.

They may also require multithreading to develop concurrent apps with high load tolerance. C++ provides this as well.

Database Management Software

C++ is commonly used to create database management software. MySQL is a highly popular open-source database platform developed in C++.

Compilers

Compilers are special programs that translate the source code into bytecode, machine code, or another programming language. A slew of compilers are crafted in C++ due to its support for low-level programming.

Java

Java was developed in the 1990s by James Gosling. The programming language was designed to promote readability, scalability, clarity, security, and high platform independence. It’s also extremely versatile and efficient.

Here are the most important features of Java:

  • Handling object life cycle – Java handles object life cycles through automated resource control and trash collection.
  • Platform independence – This programming language can be used on practically any platform without recompiling.
  • Just-In-Time compilers – Java’s Just-In-Time compilers are highly efficient, carrying large amounts of data in minimal time. Additionally, the language can grant run-time access to other entities.
  • Parallel processing – This feature allows you to develop apps that can perform several activities simultaneously.
  • Object-oriented – Like C++, Java is an object-oriented language that uses objects and classes to manage code.

Java lets you develop the following platforms.

Mobile Apps

Android is modeled mainly through Java. Almost every top-rated app has an Android version, including Asana, Venmo, and Airbnb. Many video and board games are developed through Java as well.

One of the most famous examples is Pokémon Go. This mobile game was built on Java, featuring augmented reality crafted through complex code.

Some PC games aren’t compatible with Android devices, but they were still crafted in Java. Minecraft is the crown jewel of these games.

Cloud Operations

People often refer to Java as the WORA (write once, run anywhere) programming language. This makes the platform ideal for decentralized cloud-based applications.

You can find Java in any service, software, or infrastructure that requires cloud access. Most of the backend stack of Twitter, Amazon, and Netflix is powered by this programming language. And since it allows for big data processing, it offers data sharing and collection in its cloud-based solutions.

Big Data Processing

If you want to analyze big data, Java can be one of your most effective tools. This programming language is reliable and fast, making it ideal for this process.

For example, Apache Hadoop was developed in Java. This phenomenal software library processes large chunks of data almost effortlessly due to its tremendous capabilities.

Apache Kafka is another example. This system was created in LinkedIn to process huge amounts of data in real time. Besides Java, the developers also used Scala – a statically typed programming language. Many well-established companies use Kafka to sift through large quantities of information, like the New York Times, Pinterest, and PayPal. It enables you to detect anomalies and errors before they compromise the rest of the system.

Elasticsearch is also a potent search engine modeled on Java that ingests and analyzes big data. It’s used by several major apps, like Slack, Shopify, and Uber.

AI Development

The world has become heavily reliant on AI machine learning. If you want to explore this technology, Java is one of your best options. It’s used in Netflix to suggest what you watch next as well as Siri and Alexa for real-time voice recognition. It integrates AI quickly and reliably to reduce the risk of errors and improve user experience.

Open-Source Programming

More and more people are entering the field of open-source programming. If you want to join this community, Java is an excellent option. Spring and RxJava are two of the most famous examples of Java’s open-source prowess. The former is a dependable app-building framework, while the latter is a library for working with asynchronous events.

Exploration of Outer Space

When discussing the C++ vs. Java vs. Python debate, you wouldn’t believe that any of the programs are used to help astronomers explore outer space. However, NASA regularly utilizes Java to perform many fascinating tasks. They’ve developed World Wind with this programming language – software that allows you to zoom in from the universe and examine any place on Earth.

Java has been the go-to programming language for space exploration for over two decades. In 2004, astronomers used Java to operate the Maestro Mars Rover Controller. Meanwhile, JMARS for Moon and JMARS are geospatial information systems NASA implements for analyzing data.

C++ vs. Java vs. Python

Python

Python is a versatile programming language developed more than 30 years ago by Guido van Rossum. This Dutch programmer wanted to design a successor to the ABC language that could perform interfacing and exception handling with Amoeba OS.

Originally, Python was a little-known language, but this changed when the developer published its source code and released version 1.0. Since then, it has gone through many significant changes and now powers several top-class websites, like Netflix, Instagram, and Reddit.

Python boasts a number of admirable features:

  • Eloquence – Python might be the most famous eloquent language, meaning it can perform a lot with minimal code.
  • Many modules and frameworks – Python is a phenomenal programming solution due to its modules and frameworks. You can do almost any operation imaginable, as the platform offers more than 130,000 libraries.
  • Simple syntax – This programming language is used for complex tasks, but it has a simple syntax. This makes it a perfect choice for beginners.
  • Interpreted language – Python has an interpreted programming environment, so you don’t need to compile it before each run. This feature enables you to quickly create prototype applications.
  • Natural processing and deep learning – The platform excels in these two areas, as it processes AI with ease.

Python has numerous use cases.

Machine Learning and Data Analysis

Python is the mainstay of data science. You can use this programming language for different activities:

  • Conducting statistical calculations
  • Creating data visualizations
  • Manipulating and analyzing data
  • Building machine learning algorithms

Its data visualization features are especially useful. Python lets you develop all sorts of visualization tools, such as pie charts, 3D plots, histograms, and bar and line graphs.

There are also countless libraries that allow you to build machine learning and data analysis platforms more efficiently. Keras and TensorFlow are great examples of Python’s AI capabilities.

Scripting or Automation

When programming, you often need to perform tasks repeatedly. This can be time-consuming and lower your enthusiasm for the project.

You can solve this problem with Python. The programming language can increase your efficiency by automating processes through scripting. In coding terms, you can use this automation to identify errors across various files, execute mathematical operations, convert files, or remove data duplicates.

You can even use Python if you’re a relative newcomer to basic computing tasks. The language eliminates the need to manually rename files, find and download online content, and send emails. It can also automate the processes and do them for you at the desired interval.

Software Testing

Many software developers use Java, C++, and Python. However, Python may be the most suitable programming language.

More specifically, it can help you streamline a number of tasks, such as building control, bug tracking, and software testing. You can automate your prototyping for new features or products, which can speed up your development. Some Python functions used for testing software include Requestium and Green.

Programming Applications

Python lets you program a bunch of different applications. This general-purpose language reads and creates file directories, APIs, GUIs, and more. Whether you’re working on video and audio apps, machine learning platforms, or blockchain models, you shouldn’t have trouble building them in Python.

Web Development

You can launch your web development career with several platforms, including Python. This programming language can create the back end of any application or website (parts of pages invisible to users). Its role can involve sending information to and from your server, communicating with a database, processing information, enhancing security, and URL routing. The system has a number of web development frameworks, like Flask and Django.

Many professions are available if you master Python’s web development features. Apart from a Python developer, you can pursue the following careers:

  • Back-end engineer
  • Full-stack engineer
  • Software engineer
  • DevOps engineer

Finance

Python is frequently used in the financial sectors now. For example, you can find its applications in qualitative and quantitative analyses. The programming language can be invaluable when determining asset prices, trends, and predictions. On top of that, it enables you to automate workflows across various data sources.

Everyday Tasks

Python isn’t designed for data scientists and programmers only. Learning this programming language opens new possibilities, even if you’re in a profession that doesn’t rely heavily on data. This includes social media marketing and journalism.

Python simplifies and automates many everyday tasks:

  • Keeping track of crypto prices and the stock market
  • Filling out internet forms automatically
  • Randomly assigning chores to friends or family
  • Converting text documents to spreadsheets
  • Renaming multiple files simultaneously
  • Updating shopping lists

There’s No Clear Winner

When deciding the C++ vs. Java vs. Python debate, it’s hard to tell which programming language is the best because each one has specific use cases. The choice depends on your goals as a programmer and the career you wish to pursue.

If you’re a beginner, stick to just one platform at first. Learning multiple programming languages at the same time can be overwhelming.

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